international investment position

United States’ Net Wealth

7 October 2015

The latest release of the Federal Reserve Statistical Release Z.1, Financial Accounts of the United States – Flow of Funds, Balance Sheets and Integrated Macroeconomic Accounts or just “flow of funds” has a new table B.1: Derivation of U.S. Net Wealth. According to the release: A new table on the derivation of U.S. net wealth (table […]


Interest Rate, Growth And Debt Sustainability

7 April 2015

Frequently, discussions about debt sustainability have discussions about the importance of the interest rate and growth in debt sustainability analysis. See for example, today’s Paul Krugman’s post on his blog. It is concluded that as long as the rate of interest is below the rate of growth, the ratio public debt/gdp doesn’t explode. Unfortunately, this […]


The U.S. Net International Investment Position At The End Of 2014 [Updated]

1 April 2015

The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analysis today released accounts for the United States’ international investment position. The U.S. is sometimes called the world’s biggest debtor and its net international investment position is now (at the end of 2014) minus $6.9 trillion. Here’s the chart from the BEA’s website. A few points. The importance of […]


Cyprus Rescue

30 March 2013

Cyprus has recently received the attention of academicians and financial professionals in recent weeks. Need I say that? So national bankruptcy is to be resolved by winding down a bank, moving guaranteed deposits (i.e., upto €100,000) to another and as per the latest Reuters article on this, big numbers (anywhere ranging from 20 to 40 per […]


Not A Balance-Of-Payments Crisis?

27 October 2012

Here’s a new piece by Randall Wray on Economonitor claiming current accounts do not matter (once again!) and didn’t have much of a role on the Euro Area crisis. Part of his arguments are the same as those who participated in public debates 1991 (most, not all) and claimed the balance-of-payments doesn’t matter. Perhaps he should […]


U.S. Net Indebtedness Above $5T Now

27 June 2012

The BEA reported yesterday that the U.S. Net International Investment Position at the end of 2011 was minus $4,030.3bn. The large change compared to the end of 2010 (where it was -$2,473.6bn) was due to large revaluations of assets and liabilities in addition to the current account deficit. See the BEA blog on this. For […]


Downplaying TARGET2 Imbalances

13 June 2012

Beate Reszat has written a very nice article on TARGET2 Target2 – Q&A which should be read by anyone interested. The article seems to be in response to a speech by George Soros earlier this month in Italy. The link appears in her post and the relevant section of the transcript quoted. Although it is a […]


Cyprus Seeking Bailout

2 June 2012

According to a Wall Street Journal article from yesterday Cyprus Seen Close to a Request for Bailout, Cyprus (2011 GDP: €18bn approximately) is set to become the fourth Euro Area nation to seek a bailout after Greece, Ireland and Portugal. According to the WSJ: Late last year, the country negotiated a €2.5 billion ($3.1 billion) bilateral loan […]


The Monetary Economics Of Sovereign Government Rating

4 May 2012

If a government (outside monetary unions) can make a draft at the central bank, why do rating agencies rate governments’ creditworthiness? In this post, I will attempt to describe the dynamics of defaults and restructurings by going through some monetary economics of open economies. Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff wrote a book in 2009 titled This […]


Exorbitant Privilege

18 March 2012

My last post was on U.S. net income payments from abroad and how it continues to be in the favour of the United States. The late Wynne Godley had been analyzing this since 1994. In an article titled U.S. Trade Deficits: The Recovery’s Dark Side?, written with William Milberg, he had a section called “Foreign indebtedness and the […]